When growing mangoes, proper fertilization and management techniques have an impact on growth, and disease and pest prevention should also be considered.
Mango is one of the most popular tropical fruits in the world. In recent years, many technical issues have arisen in mango production, resulting in a decline in mango quality. Therefore, it is essential to adopt high-yield planting techniques to increase mango production and ensure mango quality.
This article introduces and analyzes the key technologies in mango production, proposes corresponding strategies and suggestions, and promotes the healthy and sustainable development of the mango industry.
- Orchard Establishment
Mangoes like sunshine, so the mango orchard should be built in a sunny location. Choose a dry winter and spring season, with low humidity and less rainy weather, to ensure that the sunlight exposure is above 50%.
The soil of the plantation must be deep to prevent soil hardening. In addition, mangoes need a lot of water to grow, so they need to be grown close to a water source to ensure adequate irrigation. In addition, do a good job in garden planning, ensure that the environment of the orchard is suitable, and control the density of mango planting.
- Seedling Selection
Mango seedlings have a direct impact on the fruit, so it is necessary to choose high-quality mango seedlings to ensure the taste of the fruit and improve the overall yield.
To improve the survival rate of planting fruit trees, attention should be paid to the selection of young trees, choosing pure varieties and young trees with good interface healing. The seedlings should be straight, not tilted or damaged, to ensure a high survival rate after planting.
Continuous improvement of technical level and application effects is of great significance for improving the survival rate and yield of young seedlings. It is worth noting that a single variety should not be planted in the mango orchard.
Varieties should be reasonably matched, with 15%-20% of the varieties controlling the planting of early-ripening and late-ripening varieties, thereby increasing mango production.
3. Fertilizer Management
- Fertilization of young trees Young mango trees mainly require nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizer, with an appropriate amount of potassium fertilizer. For basal fertilizer, phosphate rock or bone meal can be used, and for topdressing, nitrogen fertilizer is suitable. After transplantation, mainly apply compound fertilizer. If it is dry weather in September, foliar fertilizer should be applied at a ratio of 1% to 2% and 1:4. It can also be directly sprayed on the leaves to increase the consumption of fertilizer for the next year. The amount of organic fertilizer can be increased from June to August. Each plant should be given 50 kg of green manure, 20-30 kg of organic fertilizer, and 0.5-1 kg of phosphate rock.
- Fertilization of fruiting trees During the fruiting period, the demand for nitrogen and potassium fertilizer is high, with a large amount of potassium fertilizer, and an appropriate amount of phosphate fertilizer, magnesium fertilizer, or calcium fertilizer. From September to October every year, apply flower fertilizer, mainly for fruit trees with a crown height of less than 4 meters, applying 150 grams of potassium sulfate and urea per plant, or directly applying 250 grams of compound fertilizer. Sometimes, a potassium-rich foliar fertilizer can also be added. With the increase of the crown, fertilization should be increased.
If the flowering amount is large, urea should be applied after the flowers fall, with 100-150g per application. It can also be mixed during the medication process and used as root external topdressing treatment.
One to two applications of nitrogen and potassium fertilizer or foliar spraying should be used to provide sufficient nutrition for fruit development after the thank-you flowers are appreciated, before harvesting. After harvesting, heavy fertilizer should be applied immediately to supplement the nutrients of the fruit trees. In the year of abundant harvest, quick-acting nitrogen fertilizer should be applied before and after the fruit is harvested. Each plant should be given 200-250g of urea, phosphate fertilizer, and organic fertilizer.
- Flower and Fruit Management During the mango planting period, the yield of mangoes can be improved by promoting and controlling flowering. For young fruit trees, mango catalyst or ethylene should be used to regulate plant growth in November and December to ensure that the fruit trees flower quickly. In case of rainy weather or premature flowering, flower picking can be used to adjust the flowering period to ensure the flowering quality of mango trees.
Fruit drop is prone to occur 40-60 days after flowering. Therefore, in the growth process of mangoes, summer shoots should be removed during the fruit expansion period to ensure that the fruit can obtain sufficient nutrients and promote fruit growth. In addition, potassium dihydrogen phosphate or urea can be sprayed on the fruit trees after flowering to ensure the normal growth of the fruit.
5. Management and Control of Mango Diseases
- Powdery Mildew Disease
This disease mainly occurs during the flowering period and causes serious damage to inflorescences and young fruits. Before the disease occurs, a solution can be prepared by mixing 80% manganese-zinc ethylenebisdithiocarbamate or 80% dibenzothiophene disulfide at a dilution rate of 1000-1500 times. If the disease has already occurred, spraying with a concentration of 72.2% carbamate or carbendazim fungicide is recommended.
- Anthracnose Disease
When selecting seeds, it is important to prioritize disease-resistant varieties and promptly remove diseased branches, leaves, and fruits, as well as clear weeds and improve light penetration to avoid bacterial proliferation.
On the other hand, spraying prevention methods can be used, such as a 70% concentration of methyl thiophanate or a 10% concentration of benomyl.
During the early fruiting stage, mangoes should be sprayed twice a month. For mangoes in the stage of new shoots, spraying should be done every 7-10 days from the emergence of shoots, repeated 2-3 times.
- Powdery Mildew Disease
To reduce the erosion of powdery mildew on mango trees, it is necessary to regularly clean the mango trees. In addition to removing weeds and pruning, soil permeability should be ensured to prevent bacteria from invading the interior of mango trees and ensure normal growth.
6. Control of Mango Pests
Thrips cause serious damage to tender leaves, inflorescences, and fruits of mangoes. Pest control can be achieved using 70% imidacloprid, 10% bifenthrin, and 20% fenpropathrin water dispersible granules.
- Oriental Fruit Moth
The larvae of the oriental fruit moth primarily feed on tender branches and inflorescences, significantly impacting plant growth and yield. To effectively prevent its occurrence, the garden should be cleaned before winter, removing hidden insects and pupae in cracks of tree bark and decaying stumps.
Chemical control methods can also be adopted. When tender branches and inflorescences are exposed at 1-3 cm, insecticides should be sprayed every 7-10 days, repeated 2-3 times. The main agent used is 1.8% concentration of abamectin.
In recent years, the growing market demand has driven the development of the mango cultivation industry. To ensure or improve planting efficiency, farmers should actively explore ways to enhance mango cultivation efficiency.
By summarizing techniques for high-yield mango cultivation, including orchard establishment, seedling selection, cultivation management, fertilizer management, flower and fruit management, disease and pest control, significant improvements in mango cultivation benefits have been achieved.